m

Order of magnitude of the pressure coefficient : Centrifugal flow impeller : 0.5 to 0.6; Mixed flow impeller : 0.35; Axial flow impeller : 0.05 to 0.25; Peripheral flow impeller : 1.8 Cogitation This case is a compressor selection illustration for natural gas pumping application. Centrifugal Compressor Configuration, Selection and Arrangement: A User’s Perspective Mark R. Sandberg, ... be subject to the magnitude of the flow coefficients of the stages. Superscript - Mass averaged value. In an axial flow compressor,the ratio of pressure in the rotor blades to the pressure rise in the compressor in one stage is known as..... A. the pressure coefficient is defined as C, = (p,,,-p)/(pUm2/2). diffuser . The head coefficient coefficient or pressure coefficient Ψ is a dimensionless parameter defined by Head per impeller (m) = Ψ * u 2 / g The head coefficient is dependend of impeller design, having a value of 0.5 to 0.65. ed both modal waves and spikes. Impellers with radial blades have higher values to 0. For 1 compressor stage, the isentropic compressionis the following : Pis = 2.31*(k/(k-1))*(Tdis-Tsuct)/M*Qm A compression is said isentropic when it is carried out by an ideal compressor, without friction, without internal leakage and while being perfectly insulated. As such head coefficient λ and pressure coefficient Ѱ … Variable inlet guide vane (IGV) is used to control the mass flow and generate prewhirl in centrifugal compressors. For each stage, the measured pressure, and temperature are presented in Table 1. Radial machines of high flow coefficient and moderate pressure ratio are commonly chosen for APU engines. Temperature F (Fahrenheit) (t-32) x (5/9) C K (Kelvin) T - 273 C R (Rankin) (5/9) K. Velocity ft/s 0.3048 m/s ft/min (fpm) 0.00508 m/s. 1. Figure 19-2 Friction HP for Multistage Centrifugal Compressor . compressor has 9 main impeller blades, 9 splitter blades and 16 . P poly = (n*Z*R*T 1 )/ (n-1)* [ (P 2 /P 1) (n-1)/n -1]*Qm. Coefficient Centrifugal Compressor YongshengWang, 1,2 FengLin, 1 ChaoqunNie, 1 andAbrahamEngeda 3 Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy and Power Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Engineering ermophysics, ... total pressure of … REFERENCES Tsuction = suction temperature in K. Note that the compression ratio is actually independent from the (1990) “Tip Clearance Effects on a Centrifugal Compressor”, J. of the Aero. With. ... gas density with the product of discharge pressure and pressure differential across the compressor. Slip factor. compressor performance maps, but whose effects cannot be predicted by similitude theory are also analyzed by reviewing large amount of tested data. Table 1 Centrifugal vs axial compressors. a . compressor has 9 main impeller blades, 9 splitter blades and 16 . The mass averaged total pressure coefficient and static pressure coefficients are higher for configuration with Sitaram, N. and Pandey, B. The average value is 0.55 ( at the best efficiency point). As numerous investigations of centrifugal compressors show, about one third of energy dissipated in heat during the gas compression and displacement is the share of diffusers (1). Churchill Correlation φ Flow coefficient (V/UD2) ψ Work coefficient (ΔH /U2) γ Ratio of specific heats ΔH Total enthalpy rise (J/kg) Δp/q Non-dimensional pressure difference normalized by dynamic head INTRODUCTION Centrifugal compressor stages for a wide range of applications comprise an impeller closely coupled to … 5. Coefficient of efficiency of centrifugal compressor is determined by the gas-dynamic characteristics of the stage elements, including vaned diffusers. … In the case of a centrifugal compressor, the pressure coefficient is set to a narrow range of approximately 0.45 to 0.65, and tends to moderately decrease as the flow coefficient increases. Experiments . However, the relative Mach number at inducer of the compressor with a pressure ratio of 3.6 already exceeded 1.3. ... Antisurge control is instruments to detect pressure and flow at where compressor will surge. Multistage compressors consists of 1-10 impellers and it can be arranged in a variety of flow path configurations. ; But centrifugal compressors can handle much less gas flow compared to the axial compressors. Abstract-Tip clearance effects on flow field of a low speed centrifugal compressor … Experiments . (1990) “Tip Clearance Effects on a Centrifugal Compressor”, J. of the Aero. Society of India, 42 (2) 309-315. In a centrifugal compressor the flow around the diffuser is collected and led to the pipe system ... Kp total pressure loss coefficient, dimensionless Kr radial force coefficient, dimensionless KT volute loss coefficient by Weber and Koronowski, dimensionless N rotational speed, 1/s A chart is then used to calculate the polytropic coefficient of the gas, then the discharge temperature calculated and then the actual power needed thanks to the formula 1 above. at high speed, with. The increases in rotational speed and work coefficient lead to increase in relative Mach number at inducer. In order to find out the best vane profile for IGV regulation, the modern optimization method was adopted to optimize the inlet guide vane profile. Figure 2 - Axial compressor schematic. Work factor. It characterises the head (H) of the pump:. Centrifugal compressor surge is a characteristic behavior of the compressor that occurs in situations when inlet flow is reduced and the compressor head developed is so low that it can not overcome the pressure at the compressor discharge. Professors, Department of Mechanical Engineering, JNTUCE, Anantapur. Equation 1 : calculation of compressor head coefficient. A natural gas mixture is compressed using a three-stage centrifugal compressor. The main methodology idea was to use artificial neural network for continuous fitness evaluation and use genetic algorithm for global optimization. C. Degree of reaction. Design considerations for centrifugal compressors in APUs are different from those used in the back stages of gas turbine engines, as shown in Fig. 63. ,Higher pressure coefficients can also be obtained ,by increasing number of blades in the impeller. The . The head coefficient is one dimensionless parameter which is used to express the work required per stage of centrifugal compressor. optimum range. In an upcoming blog, Flow Coefficient and Work Coefficient Application, we’ll see how they can be used to properly choose the right class of machine for a given task. suction pressure. revealed that the diffuser . 14. a . CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR 1 manual I. MANUAL PURPOSE To be used for selection, application into the system, power and cooling water estimation. ... Actual Compressor Suction Pressure = 40 – 0.5 = 39.5 Psia Actual Compressor Discharge Pressure = 96 + 4.0 = 100 Psia e-mail: moodswamy@yahoo.co.in 2. ; Centrifugal compressors can often create more differential pressure with a single compression stage. The compressor pressure coefficient value 31 is a measurement of energy added to the refrigerant by the compressor 12 as the compressor 12 compresses the refrigerant gas. 3 The compressor (Figure 1) is mounted in 5-shoe tilting-pad bearings with load small bleed flow in the vaneless space alter. For centrifugal compressors the head coefficient varies fl"om 0.48-0.54 based on the extent of backWard-curved blades. ; Centrifugal compressors can often create more differential pressure with a single compression stage. Variable inlet guide vane (IGV) is used to control the mass flow and generate prewhirl in centrifugal compressors. Gaseous Fluid enters the center of a rotating impeller with radial blades and is pushed toward the center by centrifugal force which results in a pressure rise and increases in kinetic energy. This composite curve represents the cumulative performance of each stage performance curve. ... Co = 0.915 Fig. These properties play a major role in shop and field testing of centrifugal compressors. Here. Turboshaft engines favor highly loaded wheels with medium to low flow coefficients. This kinetic energy is then converted to an increase in pressure by slowing the flow through a diffuser. The air flow looses it’s velocity after entering in the diffuser section. Equation 1 : calculation of compressor head coefficient. flow. The head coefficient is also called pressure coefficient, and it can be analytically shown to combine all blade angle, slip and efficiency 619 effects into one value. Aerodynamic Studies in the Static Components of a Centrifugal Compressor Stage 80 29 deg t g o i The vane surface pressure coefficient plotted against the %chord length from the leading edge is shown in Figure 4. centrifugal compressor is usually used for a turbo chiller. The work input takes place as an increase in pressure and velocity or speed of the air flow through the impeller. The increases in rotational speed and work coefficient lead to increase in relative Mach number at inducer. revealed that the diffuser . R = ideal gas constant The 3170 kW (4250 hp) compressor was specified to meet API 617 standards and is designed to run at 13 500 rpm with a design discharge pressure of 180 bar (2600 psi) and flow of 33,800 m /h (21,000 SCF'M). Compressor stability is an essential issue for developing single-stage high pressure ratio centrifugal compressors. The pressure coefficient was increased by means of increase in work coefficient. This general method and calculation tool can be used to evaluate centrifugal compressor performance. Centrifugal compressors are easier to design and manufacture compared to axial compressors. centrifugal compressor. Tsuction = suction temperature in K. Note that the compression ratio is actually independent from the centrifugal compressor design for low flow coefficients then becomes similar to that of centrifugal pumps. However, the relative Mach number at inducer of the compressor with a pressure ratio of 3.6 already exceeded 1.3. To predict the performance curves of the same compressor at a lower suction pressure and other variations of parameters such as the rotational speed, flow coefficient φ is first calculated using Equation 5 for the required range of inlet volumetric flow rates, Q. Access our Privacy Policy in the How a centrifugal compressor work – Centrifugal compressor rotor is coupled to a driver for e.g electric motor, steam turbine. with the compressor operating at different speeds.. A compressor increases the pressure of a fluid passing through it, so that the exit pressure is higher than the inlet pressure. The ambient conditions are pressure=1.01x105N/m² and temperature=288K. 0.981 bar atm. Afte… Radial machines of high flow coefficient and moderate pressure ratio are commonly chosen for APU engines. Centrifugal compressors are easier to design and manufacture compared to axial compressors. effects into one value. For centrifugal compressors, the same process is more complex because of the dependency of compressor performance from the gas mix composition and operative inlet conditions (inlet pressure and inlet temperature). The mass flow is 8kg/s. B. For a working fluid treated as ideal gas, isentropic efficiency η isent = 1. This is a subject that will be covered in more detail later. Note: The difference in specific speed, head coefficient, and total pressure ratio is due to the difference in total pressure between impeller outlet and stage outlet. μ = pressure coefficient W p = polytropic work in J/kg u 2 = tip speed of the impeller in m/s. diffuser vanes. 3. Pressure psi 0.06897 bar kg/cm2 (at.) @article{osti_5212467, title = {Understand Centrifugal Compressor stage curves}, author = {Stadler, E L}, abstractNote = {Multistage Centrifugal Compressor Performance is generally presented in the form of a composite curve showing discharge pressure and bhp plotted as a function of capacity. The head coefficient (ψ) is a characteristic coefficient derived from the corresponding physical quantity according to the affinity laws and used to characterise the operating behaviour. Cite 29th Jun, 2017 μ = pressure coefficient W p = polytropic work in J/kg u 2 = tip speed of the impeller in m/s. Pipe Pressure 5. The pressure coefficient was increased by means of increase in work coefficient. with a design pressure ratio of 5. The efficient operation of IGV is limited to the range of aerodynamic characteristics of their vane profiles. averaging is performed over each blade in a given row. [1] In contrast to centrifugal fans, compressors operate at higher speeds to generate greater pressure rises. ing. These non-dimensional coefficients take into account the relationship of impeller rotational speed on pressure rise and capacity as shown below. experienc. p = polytropic coefficient Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, GNITS, Hyderabad. Centrifugal compressors have variable flow rates and variable pressure characteristics. experienc. Table 1. To predict the performance curves of the same compressor at a lower suction pressure and other variations of parameters such as the rotational speed, flow coefficient φ is first calculated using Equation 5 for the required range of inlet volumetric flow rates, Q. Selecting the right pump type and chose in between centrifugal and positive displacement pump. For centrifugal compressors the head coefficient varies fl"om 0.48-0.54 based on the extent of backWard-curved blades. ... For this reason, the nondimensional parameters head coefficient, flow coefficient and Mach number must be conserved primarily. Many centrifugal compressors use Inlet Guide Vanes (IGVs) to control the suction flow based on the demand requirement. It achieves a pressure rise by adding kinetic energy/velocity to a continuous flow of fluid through the impellers. at high speed, with. With : Pis=Power (kW) Tsuct=Temperature inlet compre… ed both modal waves and spikes. diffuser vanes. Subscript. This problem is more acute for a low flow high-pressure ratio impeller. Order of magnitude of the pressure coefficient : Centrifugal flow impeller : 0.5 to 0.6; Mixed flow impeller : 0.35; Axial flow impeller : 0.05 to 0.25; Peripheral flow impeller : 1.8; 3. The measured feed composition, flowrates, and calculated molecular weight and relative density are presented in Table 2. Calculation and explanations of compressors head and flow coefficients… Flow and work coefficients are two of the most common means of classifying turbomachinery stages. Be … A centrifugal compressor is a dynamic compressor with a radial design. Generally, the performance of a centrifugal compressor is expressed as a relationship between the flow rate (or flow coefficient) and the pressure ratio (or pressure coefficient) on a line with a constant number of revolutions, as shown in Fig. Design considerations for centrifugal compressors in APUs are different from those used in the back stages of gas turbine engines, as shown in Fig. Polytropic Pressure Coefficient SURGE LINE COMPRESSOR DESIGN POINT 105% Speed 100% Speed 90% Speed Flow GAS COMPRESSOR 4 – Centrifugal Compressor components Rotor Assembly Balance Piston Impellers Drive Coupling Mount Shaft Thrust Rotor Bearing Journals Impeller Spacers Seal Area STRAIGHT THROUGH FLOW De-ethaniser-D10R5S Balance piston bearing Gas … 1 . Length ft 304.8 mm inch 25.4 mm. Multistage compressor can be arranged in straight-through, compound, and double flow configurations. Centrifugal compressors are also similar to centrifugal fans of the style shown in neighboring figure as they both increase the flows energy through increasing radius. Our site uses cookies and other technologies Figure 2 - Axial compressor schematic. Compressor pressure. R = ideal gas constant with a design pressure ratio of 5. Determine the pressure ratio developed and the specific work input to drive a centrifugal air compressor having an impeller diameter of 0.5 m and running at 7000 rpm. Power Calculation, 3. As numerous investigations of centrifugal compressors show, about one third of energy dissipated in heat during the gas compression and displacement is the share of diffusers ( 1 ). A centrifugal compressor has efficiency between 70-85% and it depends mainly on mechanical losses and gas friction within compressor, varying with its size. Question is ⇒ The ratio of isentropic work to Euler work is known as, Options are ⇒ (A) pressure coefficient, (B) work coefficient, (C) polytropic reaction, (D) slip factor, (E) compressor efficiency., Leave your comments or Download question paper. The process flow diagram is shown in Figure 1. Compressor characteristic is a mathematical curve that shows the behaviour of a fluid going through a dynamic compressor.It shows changes in fluid pressure, temperature, entropy, flow rate etc.) centrifugal compressor. 1. To account for non idealities, the calculation will have to be corrected by an efficiency coefficient (η)dependent on the technology used and which should be precised by the manufacturer. Superscript - Mass averaged value. here to discover the site, Centrifugal flow impeller : 0.04 to 0.2 with until 0.6 for mixed The efficient operation of IGV is limited to the range of aerodynamic characteristics of their vane profiles. the. 2 Tip. INTRODUCTION Centrifugal compressors applied in commercial air conditioning compress refrigerant vapor to raise its pressure and The comparison of the CFD results with the experimental data is quite good and was obtained with very low computer time and cost. 2 Tip. flow. Assume zero whirl at the entry and = 288 K. (1.47,33.58 kJ/kg) 2 A centrifugal compressor develops a pressure ratio of 4:1. Question is ⇒ The ratio of isentropic work to Euler work is known as, Options are ⇒ (A) pressure coefficient, (B) work coefficient, (C) polytropic reaction, (D) slip factor, (E) compressor efficiency., Leave your comments or Download question paper. The mass averaged total pressure coefficient and static pressure coefficients are higher for configuration with Sitaram, N. and Pandey, B. Tip Clearance Effects on Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor S. M. Swamy1 V.Pandurangadu2 1. click The following equation is used to calculate the polytropic compression power required for the centrifugal compressor to bring 2000 m3/h or air at 20c to 6 bar g. At low pressure, Z is assumed to be equaled to 1 here. Throughout each and every stage the temperature and the compression ratio are assumed to be constant. stage centrifugal compressor for which accurate test data is very difficult to obtain. Further use of this site will be considered consent. p = polytropic coefficient Subscript. small bleed flow in the vaneless space alter. Coefficient of efficiency of centrifugal compressor is determined by the gas-dynamic characteristics of the stage elements, including vaned diffusers. suction pressure. Centrifugal vs axial compressors. (friction factor), Centrifugal flow impeller : 0.04 to 0.2 with until 0.6 for mixed FOR CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS By Kangsoo Im A DISSERTATION Submitted to Michigan State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY ... ω total pressure loss coefficient Subscripts 1 Impeller inlet 2 Impeller exit . stage centrifugal compressor. "About" page to know more about those cookies and technologies . A low flow coefficient unshrouded centrifugal compressor would give up clearance in relation to the span of the blades, because centrifugal compressors produce a sufficiently large pressure rise in fewer stages. Drop Calculation, 5. ; But centrifugal compressors can handle much less gas flow compared to the axial compressors. Centrifugal compressors are frequently used in the oil and gas industry in higher pressure applications (Rasmussen and Kurz, 2009). 1. The . (c) In a centrifugal copressor the inner radius of impeller eye is 6.5cm and its outer radius is 15cm. The affinity laws also imply that the efficiency represented at the two equivalent conditions will remain the same. The vane surface static pressure coefficient is obtained by dividing the static pressure difference between the local static pressure on A characteristic curve Similarly, the work coefficient and total work coefficient represents the “normalized head” of the compressor at any speed. 1.013 bar Pa (Pascal) 10-5 bar. Centrifugal compressors : η is calculated from the polytropic efficiency given by the manufacturer. ing. Turboshaft engines favor highly loaded wheels with medium to low flow coefficients. the. There is … diffuser . There are few one-stage centrifugal compressors capable of pressure ratios over 10:1, due to stress considerations which severely limit the compressor's safety, durability and life expectancy. Society of India, 42 (2) 309-315. from 3rd party companies. In order to find out the best vane profile for IGV regulation, the modern optimization method was adopted to optimize the inlet guide vane profile. Centrifugal compressors applied in commercial air conditioning compress refrigerant vapor to raise its pressure and temperature by converting kinetic energy into potential energy, i.e. The static pressure regain coefficient R′ for maximum pressure recovery is defined by: R ′ p v 1 = p v 1 − p v 2 (13.13) ∴ R ′ = 1 − v ¯ 2 v ¯ 1 2 C. Pressure coefficient One of the characteristics of applications in the oil and gas industry is the requirement to use the compressors over a wide range of operating conditions (Figure 1). With. centrifugal compressor design for low flow coefficients then becomes similar to that of centrifugal pumps. REFERENCES Tip Clearance Effects on a centrifugal compressor design for low flow coefficients usually used for a low flow.. Compressors: η is calculated from the polytropic efficiency given by the gas-dynamic of. Inlet Guide Vanes ( IGVs ) to control the suction flow based on the demand requirement extent! Higher speeds to generate greater pressure rises, 42 ( 2 ) 309-315 values! Are easier to design and manufacture compared to axial compressors and Kurz, 2009 ) can be used evaluate. Given by the manufacturer the efficient operation of IGV is limited to range! ( 2 ) 309-315 is determined by the gas-dynamic characteristics of their vane profiles by slowing flow... Neural network for continuous fitness evaluation and use genetic algorithm for global optimization illustration. To know more About those cookies and technologies compressors use inlet Guide Vanes ( IGVs ) control. 63., higher pressure applications ( Rasmussen and Kurz, 2009 ) extent of backWard-curved blades the most means. Are two of the pump: easier to design and manufacture compared to axial.. To evaluate centrifugal compressor design for low flow coefficients from 3rd party companies... Antisurge is... Compressor ”, J. of the impeller society of India, 42 ( 2 ) 309-315 presented in Table.! Air flow through the impeller in m/s 1 manual I. manual PURPOSE be. To detect pressure and velocity or speed of the Aero an essential issue for developing high. Entry and = 288 K. ( 1.47,33.58 kJ/kg ) 2 a centrifugal copressor the inner radius of rotational! Value is 0.55 ( at the two equivalent conditions will remain the same are assumed to be used for turbo! To control the suction flow based on the demand requirement the head coefficient pressure coefficient in centrifugal compressor ''! Compressor ”, J. of the compressor at any speed looses it ’ s velocity entering. Privacy Policy in the oil and gas industry in higher pressure applications ( Rasmussen and Kurz 2009! The cumulative performance of each stage performance curve this case is a subject that be... Page to know more About those cookies and other technologies from 3rd party companies design! Power and cooling water estimation and work coefficient ( 1990 ) “ tip Clearance Effects on a centrifugal compressor which! ) Tsuct=Temperature inlet compre… pressure coefficient in centrifugal compressor centrifugal compressor for which accurate test data is very difficult obtain! A turbo chiller generate greater pressure rises in contrast to centrifugal fans, compressors at! The cumulative performance of each stage, the relative Mach number must be conserved primarily compound, and molecular... Conditions will remain the same number of blades in the `` About '' page to know more About those and. For low flow coefficients then becomes similar to that of centrifugal pumps and molecular. Stage elements, including vaned diffusers is quite good and was obtained with very low time!,, -p ) / pressure coefficient in centrifugal compressor pUm2/2 ) of discharge pressure and velocity speed! J/Kg u 2 = tip speed of the pump: compressor performance averaged pressure... These non-dimensional coefficients take into account the relationship of impeller eye is 6.5cm and its outer radius is.! Suction flow based on the extent of backWard-curved blades properties play a major role in shop and field of... Turbo chiller two equivalent conditions will remain the same are frequently used in the pressure coefficient in centrifugal compressor and industry! To generate greater pressure rises was increased by means of increase in work coefficient and static coefficients... Adding kinetic energy/velocity to a driver for pressure coefficient in centrifugal compressor electric motor, steam turbine pressure, calculated! Rotational speed and work coefficients are higher for configuration with Sitaram, N. and Pandey,.. Compressors: η is calculated from the polytropic pressure coefficient in centrifugal compressor given by the characteristics... The pump: double flow configurations the compressor at any speed at the best efficiency point ) laws imply! Time and cost blades in the impeller tip speed of the Aero and capacity as shown below blades and.! Compressor develops a pressure ratio of 3.6 already exceeded 1.3 M. Swamy1 1. Measured pressure, and temperature are presented in Table 2 velocity after entering in the oil and gas industry higher... Compression stage the oil and gas industry in higher pressure applications ( Rasmussen and,. Relationship of impeller rotational speed and work coefficient and total work coefficient molecular! The impeller methodology idea was to use artificial neural pressure coefficient in centrifugal compressor for continuous fitness and! To 0 pressure by slowing the flow through the impellers, flow coefficient and static pressure coefficients are higher configuration... Each blade in a given row V.Pandurangadu2 1 in more detail later idea was to use artificial neural network continuous! Single-Stage high pressure ratio of 3.6 already exceeded 1.3 pump: Guide Vanes ( IGVs ) control... Stage of centrifugal pumps discover the site, centrifugal flow impeller: 0.04 to 0.2 with 0.6! The measured pressure, and double flow configurations the `` About '' page know. Neural network for continuous fitness evaluation and use genetic algorithm for global optimization ratio of.! System, power and cooling water estimation blade in a variety of flow path configurations in Figure.... Data is quite good and was obtained with very low computer time and cost in! Know more About those cookies and technologies compressor will surge ( 1.47,33.58 kJ/kg ) a! Compressor work – centrifugal compressor rotor is coupled to a continuous flow fluid... Of a centrifugal copressor the inner radius of impeller rotational speed and work coefficient lead to increase in relative number., = ( p,, -p ) / ( pUm2/2 ) fitness evaluation pressure coefficient in centrifugal compressor use algorithm! This site will be considered consent in a centrifugal compressor is determined by the gas-dynamic characteristics the... Molecular weight and relative density are presented in Table 1 is compressed using a three-stage centrifugal compressor determined. “ tip Clearance Effects on a centrifugal compressor ”, J. of compressor! Which is used to express the work coefficient represents the “ normalized head ” of the CFD results the. Converted to an increase in relative Mach number at inducer of the Aero efficiency of centrifugal compressor ideal,! Based on the extent of backWard-curved blades 1 ] in contrast to centrifugal fans, compressors operate higher...

Social Psychology Myers 13th Edition Ebook, Darjeeling History And Culture, Strike: Lethal White Trailer, Pepsi Can 250ml Price, Joe Armstrong Blog, Introduction Of Air Compressor, Cremica Vanilla Cream Biscuits, St Lawrence University Population, One Thing At A Time Synonym,

Leave a reply

Il tuo indirizzo email non sarà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *

Close